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The international consensus on global warming led to measures and negotiations that culminated in the adoption of the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The protocol obliges signatories to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by setting binding emission reduction targets. In addition, flexible mechanisms have been put in place, which the parties have been able to use to achieve their objectives. However, the protocol highlighted some shortcomings that weakened its performance. It is difficult to say whether the Minutes were a success or not, because it is not certain what would have happened to the world without the protocol. Since the results of the protocol have shown what works and what does not, it is more appropriate to consider the protocol as a learning instrument in the global fight against climate change. First, in the Paris Agreement, each country must set itself the goal of reducing emissions through the principle of national contributions (NDCs); however, no party has legally binding emission reduction targets. The results show that participation as a Party to Annex I has a positive effect on the reduction of CO2 emissions. In other words, imposing a duty is an effective way to achieve the overall objective of the UNFCCC. While the principle of NNDs, which encourages all parties to improve their capacity to combat climate change, is an essential feature of the Paris Agreement, the principle of NCPDs itself does not contain obligations and sanctions. Having only a larger number of participants cannot lead to greater effectiveness of the Protocol, as well as of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification and the Basel Convention.
In this respect, there is concern that the Paris Agreement will remain an ineffective IEA . Notes 33. In order to assess in real terms the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol, it would be necessary to determine whether it achieved the objectives or whether it would have been achieved without an agreement anyway. In particular, the effects of the economic crisis of 2008/2009 and the collapse of the Eastern bloc should be taken into account. 34. BP, Data workbook – Statistical Review 2015, Carbon Dioxide Emissions (from 1965), June 2015. 35. Bjørn Lomborg, “Investing threats Posed by Climate Change: The Effects of Unchecked Climate Change on Communities and the Economy,” The Senate EPW Committee, Souscommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Safety, July 29, 2014, p.
15. 36. United Nations, “C.N.796.2011.TREATIES-1 (Depositary Notification), Canada: Withdrawal,” December 16, 2011. .